Kanzius RF Therapy is an experimental cancer treatment that employs a combination of either gold or carbon nanoparticles and radio waves to heat and destroy cancer cells without damaging healthy cells.
The specific absorption rate for radio waves by living tissue in the proposed wavelengths and intensity levels is very low. Metals absorb this energy much more efficiently than tissue through dielectric heating; Richard Smalley has suggested that carbon nanotubes could be used to similar purpose. If nanoparticles were to be preferentially bound to cancer sites, cancer cells could be destroyed or induced into apoptosis while leaving healthy tissue relatively unharmed. This preferential targeting represents a major technical challenge. According to a presentation by Dr. Steven Curley, the types of cancer potentially treatable using Kanzius RF therapy include essentially all forms of cancer.
Kanzius built a prototype Kanzius RF device in his home, and formed Therm Med., LLC to test and market his inventions. The device was successfully tested at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in 2005. As of 2007-04-23, preliminary research using the device at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has shown early promise. If federal approval is granted, testing on human patients may follow.
Later in 2007, Kanzius announced that the same radio frequency transmitter can also be used to generate a hydrogen-oxygen mixture dissociated from salt water. The discovery was made accidentally while he was researching the use of radio waves for desalination. Kanzius said that "In this case we weren't looking for energy, we were looking for something that might do desalinization. The more we tried desalinization, the more heat we produced, until we got fire". Kanzius admitted that this process could not be considered an energy source, as more energy is used to produce the RF signal than can be obtained from the burning gas and stated in July 2007 that he never claimed his discovery would replace oil, asserting only that his discovery was "thought provoking." The details of the process are still unreleased pending the issuance of a patent.
Kanzius proposed that the flame is produced by burning of hydrogen and oxygen, released from the water by radio waves "forcing together" the "normally separated" hydrogen and oxygen in the water, a process he calls "reunification". In water (H2O), hydrogen is covalently bonded to oxygen, and thus the process must "reunite" pairs of hydrogen atoms and pairs of oxygen atoms, releasing dihydrogen (H2) and dioxygen (O2). The energy from the radio waves is absorbed by the water and splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen which then react together to reform the water and re-release the energy and form a flame. In other words, the process turns radio energy into chemical energy, which then turns to heat and light energy, but does not "take energy from water". Rather, energy is put into the water in order to break it up into its components, which now may combust. The water torch, a form of oxyhydrogen torch, is an earlier example of the process of breaking down water and then recombining oxygen and hydrogen to release heat and light energy.
Nevertheless, this discovery may be a clean way to break down water into its elements and perhaps a cheaper way than electrolysis which in most forms produces toxic output from chemical reactions with the electrodes, or otherwise is produced with platinum electrodes, which are very expensive. It is difficult to compare the processes without detailed analysis.
Kanzius' experiment has been confirmed by Rustum Roy, a materials scientist at Pennsylvania State University, in a demonstration before the Material Science faculty, using Kanzius' RF transceiver, which Kanzius had brought to the lab for the day. On his website, Roy writes: "It is clear that Mr. Kanzius has demonstrated the ability to dissociate aqueous solutions of sodium chloride at normal sea water concentrations into hydrogen and oxygen."
According to Roy, "The salt water isn't burning per se, despite appearances. The radio frequencies act to weaken the bonds between the elements that make up salt water, releasing the hydrogen. Once ignited, the hydrogen will burn as long as it is exposed to the frequencies." The temperature and flame color varies with water solutions and concentrations.
John Kanzius died from pneumonia on February 18, 2009, aged 64, at a hospital near Sanibel, Florida, where he had a winter home. The pneumonia developed as complication after two recent rounds of chemotherapy.
Published patent applications as of September 16, 2007:
WO patent application 2005120639
Systems and methods for Combined RF-induced hyperthermia and radioimmunotherapy
WO patent application 2005110544 Systems and methods for RF-induced hyperthermia
US patent application 2006190063 Enhanced systems and methods for RF-induced hyperthermia
EP patent application 1758648 Enhanced systems and methods for RF-induced hyperthermia
WO patent application 2007027620 Enhanced systems and methods for RF-induced hyperthermia II
Electrolysis of water
Laws of thermodynamics
^ Christopher J. Gannon, MD; Paul Cherukuri, PhD, Boris I. Yakobson, PhD, Laurent Cognet, PhD, John S. Kanzius, Carter Kittrell, PhD, R. Bruce Weisman, PhD, Matteo Pasquali, PhD, Howard K. Schmidt, PhD, Richard E. Smalley, PhD, Steven A. Curley, MD (October 24, 2007). "Carbon nanotube-enhanced thermal destruction of cancer cells in a noninvasive radiofrequency field". Cancer (Wiley) 110: 2654. doi:10.1002/cncr.23155. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/116834125/HTMLSTART?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. Retrieved 2007-10-31. "Our results demonstrate that SWNTs can be used as a therapeutic agent to treat malignant tumors through RF-induced thermoablation, not just as a vector for the delivery of anticancer agents.".
^ a b Klune, J.R.; Jeyabalan, G., Chory, E.S., Kanzius, J., Geller, D.A. (February 2007). "Pilot investigation of a new instrument for non-invasive radiofrequency ablation of cancer". Journal of Surgical Research 137 (2): 263. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2006.12.293. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022480406009127. Retrieved 2007-09-17. "Exposure to the radiowave ld produced in vitro cell death as well as in vivo tissue destruction when metal ion enhancer solutions were utilized. Future work will focus on specific tumor destruction with tagged enhancer solutions and targeting of in vivo tumors.".
^ Associated Press (2005-05-11). "Center to Test Radio Wave Cancer Treatment". First Coast News. http://www.firstcoastnews.com/news/usworld/news-article.aspx?storyid=37036. Retrieved 2007-09-15.
^ a b "Cancer Patient Invents Treatment Machine". CBS13. August 27, 2007. http://cbs13.com/health/health_story_240004016.html. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
^ Paul Cherukuri; Christopher J. Gannon, Tonya K. Leeuw, Howard K. Schmidt, Richard E. Smalley, Steven A. Curley and R. Bruce Weisman (2006-12-12). "Mammalian pharmacokinetics of carbon nanotubes using intrinsic near-infrared fluorescence" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (50): 1888286. doi:10.1073/pnas.0609265103. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/103/50/18882.pdf.
^ C. J. Gannon, P. Mukherjee and S. A. Curley. "In vitro gold nanoparticle targeting enhances non-invasive radiofrequency destruction of human gastrointestinal malignancies". http://www.asco.org/portal/site/ASCO/menuitem.34d60f5624ba07fd506fe310ee37a01d/?vgnextoid=76f8201eb61a7010VgnVCM100000ed730ad1RCRD&vmview=abst_detail_view&confID=45&abstractID=10550. Poster presented at the 2007 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium by Dr. Christopher J. Gannon, M.D.
^ Peter Panepento (2007). "Cancer Therapy Takes Next Step". Erie Times-News. http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/439566/cancer_therapy_takes_next_step. Retrieved 2007-10-31.
^ a b "'Hurst hosts Kanzius cancer symposium". Mercyhurst College. 2007-04-23. http://www.mercyhurst.edu/news/press_releases/detail.php?id=1081&m=04&y=2007. Retrieved 2007-09-16.
^ RF-Induced Thermal Destruction of Cancer Cells Presentation by Steven Curley, accessed November 2, 2007
^ a b "Cancer survivor John Kanzius isn't a doctor". Fox News. 2007-05-11. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,156268,00.html. Retrieved 2007-09-16.
^ David Templeton (2005-02-20). "UPMC set to test cancer treatment". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/05051/459069.stm. Retrieved 2007-10-31.
^ "Bio for Dr. Steven A. Curley". Alliance for NanoHealth. 2007-02-13. http://www.nanohealthalliance.org/events-2/events-1/nanoparticles-as-intracellular-targets-to-produce-rf-induced-thermal-destruction-of-cancer-cells/. Retrieved 2007-09-16.
^ a b c d O'Mara, Michael (2007-09-12). "Salt water fuel gets major university review". WKYC. http://www.wkyc.com/news/news_article.aspx?storyid=74285. Retrieved 2007-09-14. Note: This video transcript, although published in September 2007, contains quotes by Kanzius from May, as the video contained archive footage. For more information, please see the discussion on this issue.
^ Gannon, Christopher J.; Cherukuri, Paul; Yakobson, Boris I.; Cognet, Laurent; Kanzius, John S.; Kittrell, Carter; Weisman, R. Bruce; Pasquali, Matteo; Schmidt, Howard K.; Smalley, Richard E.; Curley, Steven A. (2007). "Carbon nanotube-enhanced thermal destruction of cancer cells in a noninvasive radiofrequency field". Cancer December 2007: 2654. doi:10.1002/cncr.23155.
^ David Templeton (2007-05-02). "Cancer research inspires Erie community". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07122/782492-114.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-17. "Dr. Curley has submitted two research manuscripts for publication and was unable to provide the latest results. But he said he is testing the treatment of human cancer strains in animals. (...) "This is the most exciting new therapy for cancer that I have seen in over 20 years of cancer research," he said."
^ a b c O'Mara, Michael. (September 12 2007). Burning Water. Erie, P.A.: WKYC. http://wm.wkyc.gannett.edgestreams.net/news/20070912_saltwaterburn11_wkyc.wmv. Retrieved 2007-09-14. Note: This broadcast video, although aired in September 2007, contains archive footage of John Kanzius from May 2007. For more information, please see the discussion on this issue.
^ a b c Ogden, Shannon (2007-07-05). "Salt Water Fuel". First Coast News. http://www.firstcoastnews.com/news/mostpopular/news-article.aspx?storyid=85990&provider=top. Retrieved 2007-07-26.
^ a b Roy, Rustum (2007-09-14). "Response to email". rustumroy.com. http://www.rustumroy.com/response_to_email.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-15.
^ a b Templeton, David (2007-09-09). "Salt water as fuel? Erie man hopes so". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07252/815920-85.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-10.
^ "John Kanzius has died". Erie Times-News. http://www.goerie.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090218/NEWS02/902189983. Retrieved February 18, 2009.
^ "Sanibel remembers innovator John Kanzius". Fort Myers News-Press. http://www.news-press.com/article/20090305/NEWS0116/903050325/1075. Retrieved March 5, 2009.
Unlikely Hero- Mike G. Update
John Kanzius Cancer Research Official Web Site
The Kanzius Project published by the Erie Times-News
WJET 24 - Erie news story
WSEE 35 - Erie news story
Florida Man Invents Machine To Turn Water Into Fire wpbf-TV
WKYC 3/Cleveland news
Templeton, David (2007-09-09). "Salt water as fuel? Erie man hopes so". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07252/815920-85.stm. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
"Sending his cancer a signal" Los Angeles Times article (November 2, 2007)
"The Kanzius Machine: A Cancer Cure?" 60 Minutes story
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